Ælfwynn's Genealogy in Rohan
My name in runes:
For your name in runes
u hal! Min nama is Ælfwynn, dohtor Frōdan.
(Hello. My name is Ælfwynn, daughter of Froda)
Narratives of Early America
I am Ælfwynn, the daughter of Froda son of Eriol, and I am a twin to Ælfwine. I am from Mercia. "Mercia" comes from the word "Mierce," or Boundary. We have farmland, woodland, quarries, and salt works. Outer Mercia includes what will later be called Leicestershire as well as parts of Oxfordshire.
My husband is Sæmær, my son is Froda, and my daughter is Eawyn.
lfwine's wife is Cwen. Their sons are E�dwine and Hama, and their daughter is �adgifu.
Our older brother is Otto W�fre, whose wife is �adgifu and whose sons are Hengest and Horsa.
The abbot of Glastonbury in 1066 is Aethelnoth (1053-1077). He was preceded by Aethelward (1024-1053).
Ball, Catherine N. (1998, May 18). The Lord’
s Prayer in Old English. http://www.georgetown.edu/faculty/ballc/oe/paternoster-oe.html
Mercia and the Anglo-Saxons
Mercia is in the middle of England, north of the Thames, and was settled by the Angles, who came with the Jutes and Saxons to England. The Jutes originally came from Denmark and the Saxons from land between the Elbe and Ems rivers. The Angles came from land in northern Europe between the Jutes and Saxons.
Britons, facing the Scots and Picts in the aftermath of the Roman withdrawal of 410, had asked for Angle and Saxon mercenaries to help them. Led by brother Hengist and Horsa, the Angles and Saxons did, but then they turned around and conquered England. They created seven kingdoms, the heptarchy: Kent, Sussex, Essex, Wessex, East Anglia, Mercia, and Northumbria (as well as smaller ones).
Anglo-Saxons began converting to Christianity in the 6th century, and one result of their conversion was a flourishing literary culture.
�Mercia� refers to the kingdom being the border between Anglo-Saxon England and the Britons to the west. There is archaeological evidence showing Anglo-Saxons settled Mercia by the 6th century. Creoda was the first known king, and he ruled from about 585 to 593. His son Pybba ruled from 593 to 626. Penda was the fourth king and the last non-Christian. Penda ruled around 632 and fought Edwin of Northumbia for control of Mercia. Penda and his ally, Cadwallon of Gwynedd, defeated and killed Edwin. Both Penda and his son, Wulfhere, were active militarily.
In the 7th century, Mercia became the biggest power in the south and reached its height in the 8th century. Under Æthelbald (716-757) and Offa (757-796) Mercia controlled eastern parts of Wales, East Anglia, and areas south of the Thames. Kent and and Sussex came under Mercia. Wessex kept its independence but lost land. By the end of Æthelbald’
s wars from 733-750, even London was under Mercian control. Mercia was over the Anglo-Saxons and brought England closer to unification. Offa ruled over most of England from the English Channel to the Humber River and talked to Charlemagne as an equal. Offa issues gold coins and established a cultural, scholarly center at his court. He defended Mercia against Wales in Offa’
s Wars (771-796).
However, Mercia declined after Offa’s death in 796 and faced the Vikings and the rising power of Wessex. Cenwulf succeeded Offa (796-821), and did manage to maintain the extended boundaries, but the wind was changing. In the early 9th century, Egbert expelled Mercians from some of Wessex and defeated the Mercian Beornwulf in 825 in the Battle of Ellendune. Mercia was broken and lost Kent, Sussex, Surrey, and Essex. In 829, Egbert conquered Mercia, but the next year, Wiglaf won back Mercia’s independence In the 830s, Danish Vikings raided the coast, and by the mid 9th century, Mercia and Wessex joined together to fight the Vikings. In 868, Burgred of Mercia fought along Æthelred of Wessex and his brother Ælfred the Great against the Vikings. However, in 874, Mercia split into a Danish and an Anglo-Saxon section. Dependent on Wessex, it lost its status as an independent kingdom in the early 10th century when Edwin the Elder combined the remaining parts of Mercia with Wessex and ruled Mercia through ealdormen and shires. Wessex kings Æthelred I and Ælfred the Great halted the Viking takeover. The Anglo Saxons ruled until 1066.
Anglo-Saxons. (2006). In World History: Ancient & Medieval. Retrieved December 16, 2006, from ABC-CLIO's World History: Ancient & Medieval subscription Web site.
Mercia. (2006). In World History: Ancient & Medieval. Retrieved December 16, 2006, from ABC-CLIO's World History: Ancient & Medieval subscription Web site.
I am descendant from the Ælfwynn who was the last Lady of the Mercians:
Ælfwynn was probably born around 904 and was the daughter of Æthelred and Æthelflæ
d, who governed the Mercians under King Edward, as Lord and Lady of the Mercians. When Æthelred died in 911, Ælfwynn's mother, the daughter of Alfred of Wessex (Alfred the Great) was the sole ruler. When her mother died, Ælfwynn ruled Mercia briefly in 918 as Lady of the Mercians before being forced to go to Wessex. She probably was a nun for the rest of her life.
http://www.heoicage.org/issues/5/Shippey1.html "Wicked Queens and Cousin Strategies in Beowulfland Elsewhere," by Tom Shippey.
Savelli, Mary K. Conversational Old English.
Background of the English Kingdom of Mercia.
Her mother Æþelflæd was an amazing woman. Daughter of King Ælfred of Wessex, she was the Lady of the Mercians, hlæfdige Myrcena. When her husband, the Lord of the Mercians, hlaford Myrcena grew sick, Æþelflæd took over for him before he died in 911, and she continued to be a powerful force until she died in 918. She built fortresses, and by 915, she had built 10. She had problems with the Welsh in the west, so she sent fighters against them after Abbot Ecbgeorht was killed in 916. She collaborated with her brother, Edward the Elder, against the Vikings. In 917 and 918, she fought Vikings. She won Derby at the cost of 4 þegnas or thegns, whom she had held dear. She regained Leicester without a fight, and the York Vikings gave their allegiance to her. She made alliances with Britons, Picts, and Scots. She was so powerful that her death was noted by the Irish and Welsh, and at her death, she was one of the most powerful in England.
Ælfwynn was an adult when her mother died before midsummer in 918, and she was perhaps 30. She became hlæfdige Myrcena until three weeks before Christmas, when her uncle Edward deprived her of rule. Edward himself died in 924. His son, Æþelstan, succeeded Edward, and he may have been brought up at the Mercian court.
Fell, Christine. (1984). Women in Anglo-Saxon England. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Some Anglo-Saxon Sources:
Instant Old English
�a Engliscan Gesi�as http://www.kami.demon.co.uk/gesithas/
�a Engliscan Gesi�as homepage http://www.tha-engliscan-gesithas.org.uk/gegaderung/default.asp
Internet Medieval Sourcebook: England: Anglo-Saxon Britain http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/sbook1n.html#Anglo-Saxon%20Britain
Voice of the Shuttle: Anglo-Saxon & Medieval http://vos.ucsb.edu/browse.asp?id=2740
Ominglot: Old English http://www.omniglot.com/writing/oldenglish.htm
Regia Anglorum http://www.regia.org/listings.htm
Feasting & Fasting http://www.regia.org/feasting.htm
Food and Drink http://www.regia.org/food.htm
1066 Character post
New Tales from Middle-earth
New Tales - N�menor
I am of the Minhiriathrim, descended from the Atani, of the ancient, reclusive House of Haleth. In general, we are less interested in learning than other Edain, making my interest unusual. I live in Eryn Vorn, the Black Woods, just south the Baranduin River, (�Golden Brown River�), which starts at Lake Nenuial in the Hills of Evendim. Our land is between the Baranduin and the Greyflood. Upriver from us is Tyrn Gorthad.
We speak a language different from the other Houses, one that is not intelligible by Númenóreans. Because they can't understand us, Númenóreans don't know we are descended from the Atani, so they don't class us as �Middle Men� but class us with those who are even further from good.
Once the Haladin came to Beleriand in the First Age, we lived in Thargelion because we didn't want to settle in Estolad with the other two houses. But the Orcs wiped out most our people. The survivors were led by Haleth, daughter of Haldad, and her kin. Haldad led us when we held out in a stockade until the Noldor saved us. Noldor from Caranthir were impressed with us and offered land, but Haleth, daughter of Haldad and our leader then, refused. We went to Estload and later asked to settle in the forest of Brethil, which was part of Doriath but outside the Girdle of Melian. Thingol of Doriath gave us Brethil on the condition that we defend the Crossings of Teiglin. We guarded the northern section of Nargothrond and kept out of wars as best we could. Besides taking in refugees from our own people, we also took in some from the First House. We lost many while covering Fingon's retreat, and in 496, we were deafeated in Brethil. Nargothrond was soon sacked.
Our clan were loosely allied to each other, and we were ruled by a descendant of Haldar brother of Haleth (the Haldad), who led over the council of elders. The last Haldad leader descended from Haldar was killed by T�rin, who was calling himself Turambar. H�rin Thalion caused a civil war among us when he came to Brethil.
At first, Númenóreans came to Middle-earth and taught us how to sow seed, grind grain, hew wood and shape stone. We stopped fearing the dark, and long revered the memory of the Sea-kings beyond the sea. But later, the N�men�reans grew overbearing and in the days of Tar-Ciryatan and Tar-Atanamir, they make us send them tribute.
Now we hate the Númenóreans, and with good reason. In the 7th century of the Second Age, the Númenóreans systematically destroyed our forests so they could build their ships from our trees. We became very hostile and they persecuted us. Only those who fled to Eryn Vorn survived. Unfortunately, when Sauron came, most went to his side because they hated the Númenóreans so much. But Sauron burned most of the what was left of our forests, and he was defeated in 1701.
My mother is Morwen, my father Bregolas. My brother is Haldir, who is married to Meleth. My sister is Bereth.
Foster, Robert. (1978, 1971). �Haladin.� The Complete Guide to Middle-earth: Tolkien�s World From A to Z. New York: Ballatine Books.
�House of Haleth.� (2006, Nov.20). Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haladin
�Minhiriath.� (2006, Sept. 12). Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minhiriath
Here is a list of some words I use, based on �lfwine's translations of elvish works into English, or on Tolkien's early names for things, based on the History of Middle-earth:
Númenóreans - Numenoriscan (from Notion Club Papers, Part 2)
Middangearde - middle-earth (Anglo-Saxon)
Middle-earth is also called the Great Lands
�lfa � elves (Anglo-Saxon)
�lfcr�ft- craft of elves (Anglo-Saxon)
Seaxna folce � Saxon folk (Anglo-Saxon)
�lfa eard � elves� land (Anglo-Saxon)
Noldor � Noldoli, early version of their name
Melkor � Melko, early version
Manw� � Valw�
Teleri - Solosimpi, early version
From the Shaping of Middle-earth, next five paragraphs:
Il�uatar � Il�vatar
List of Elvish names and Old English equivalents:
Aul� � Cr�ftfr�a
L�rien � Swefnfr�a
Mandos � N�fr�a
Manw� � Wolcenfr�a (wolcen � sky, fr�a � lord)
Melko � M�nfr�a (m�n � evil), or Bolgen (wrathful), or Malscor
Orom� � W��fr�a and Huntena fr�a
Oss� - Sǽfr�a
Tulkas � Afo�fr�a
Ulmo � G�rsecges fr�a
Angband � Engbend, Irenhell
Balrog � Bealuwearg, Bealubr�ga (bealu � evil)
Doriath � �aland (�aland � land by water, river), Folgen(fold), Infolde, Wudumǽraland
Gondolin � Folgenburg, St�ngaldor(burg), Galdorf�sten
Hithluna � Hasugl�m, Hasuland
Laurelin � Gleng(g)old
Nargothrond � Hl�dingaburg, St�ngaldor(burg)
Silmaril � Sigel, Sigelmǽrels
Sirion � Fl�ot, (Fl�wet), Sc�rwendel
Vala � Bregu (ruler, lord)
Valinor � Breguland, God��el (��el � country, native land)
1st Kindred � lyftelfe (lyft � sky), L�xend (shining ones), h�ahelfe, hw�telfe
2nd Kindred � goldelfe, eor�elfe, d�opelfe, Rǽdend
3rd Kindred - sǽelfe, mere�yssan (�sea-rusher�), flotwine, N�wend (�mariners, shipmaster�)
In Earliest Annals of Valinor:
�lfwine of Angelcynne
Alqualond� � Elfeth�� (Swanhaven)
Il�uater, ��t is Ealf�der
Silmarils � Eorclanst�nas
Tavrobele, later Ta�robele
Tol Eress�a � �net�g (Solitary Isle)
Valinor � God��el
Varda � Tinwet�ri
Yavanna � Geauanna in the Quenta, Geafanna
In Earliest Annals of Valinor, 9th century Mercian dialect:
�lfwine of Ongulcynne
Geafanna Aules cw�n
Gondolin - Gondoline
Il�uatar ��t is Allfeder all �ing
Manwe, Ulmo, Aule, Orome, Tulcas, Mandos, L�rien, Melkor
Ta�robele on Toleressea (��t is �net�ge)
Varda Manwes cw�n
From Earliest Annal of Beleriand:
From Melilot's Old English Origin of Shire Names - thank you!
The Old English names for:
Brandywine - Baernedwin - "burned wine"
Brandywine Bridge - Baernedwines Brycg
Barrow Downs - Beorga Dune
New Tales - Riddermark
�lfwynn was born to Ingold and to Freawyn, daughter of King Folcwine and sister to the late king Fengel. She married S�m�r, and they have a boy and a girl, Froda and Freawaru.
Her brother is Otto W�fre, who is married to Eadgifu, and they have Hengest and Horsa. While �lwynn�s family has made sure W�fre has an important position in court, he tends to wander and come back with tales about the elves, who haven�t been seen in quite awhile.
Sut mae. Hello.
I am �lfwynn ferch Rhys (�lfwynn daughter of Rhys), and I was born in Caernarfon, in the Principality in Cymru (that�s Wales to you). Caernarfon, basically the capital of North Wales, is west of the land of the Marcher Lords and is part of English crown lands. Caernarfon Castle was built for Edward I after the English defeated Wales in 1283, but Caernarfon used to be part of the kingdom of Gwynedd, once the strongest kingdom in Wales.
I am a descendant of Marededd ap Tudur (Henry VIII�s great great grandfather), who was the cousin of Owain Glyndwr, a man of the Marches. The latter led a famous rebellion against the English king. Marededd and his two older brothers, Rhys and Gwilym, took part in the rebellion. Rhys and Gwilym took Conway Castle during the rebellion and held out for a few months before surrendering. When Owain Glyndwr�s rebellion failed, Marededd went to London for a new start. The Tudurs come from the center of Ynys M�n (the island of Anglesey), from Penmynydd. Anglesey is the island north of what used to be the kingdom of Gwynedd. One of my grandmothers was the daughter of Alys, the daughter of Owain Glyndwr.
I served at Ludlow Castle when Prince Arthur and Princess Catherine held court there before the prince died. Princess Mary Tudor spent three winters between 1525 and 1528 at Ludlow. Ludlow Castle is the headquarters of the Council of the Marches, which is the means by which the English rule Wales and the English counties called the Welsh Marches. The Lord President of the Council is John Vesey, who has been Lord President since 1525 and will continue until 1534. Then Rowland Lee will take over. Cromwell asks him to bring order to Wales, which Lee does by killing many, for he hates the Welsh.
My husband David (Dafydd) Grey was born at Crickhowell in Chepstow, and he is the son of the 1st Baron Powis and the younger brother of John Grey, the 2nd Baron Powis, a marcher lord. My husband's mother is a Pole and is descended from the last Welsh marcher lord of Powys on her father�s side, and is descended from the powerful Mortimer family on her mother�s side. The Mortimers were marcher lords of the cantref Maelienydd, which is in south-central Wales, just west of Ludlow, and the Mortimers were stewards of land around Ludlow. Richard Mortimer, who died in 1398, was briefly the heir presumptive to Richard III, and Edward Mortimer, who died in 1425, was the 5th Earl of March and the 7th Earl of Ulster. He was part of the council of regency for Henry VI. My husband�s mother is also a descendant of the last Welsh Prince of Wales, Llywelyn ap Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, who ruled in 1246 � 1282, also known as Llywelyn the Last ap Gruffydd.
My husband's brother is Edward Grey, the 3rd Baron Powis and a companion of Charles Brandon, a friend of the king. Edward Grey's wife is Anne Brandon.
In 1536, Henry VIII abolishes the lands of the Marcher Lords and turns them into seven counties (this is the "Act of Union", although that title wasn�t used until the 20th century). The act also makes English the language of the courts in Wales. We saw it coming, as many of the marches have gone into English hands, so we have come to Henry�s court to improve our family�s fortunes.
My husband is David/ Dafydd. My mother is Morwen, my father Rhys, my daughters are Angharad and Gwenlliam, and my son is Iorweth.
Narratives of Early America
Born: Leicester, England. She moves to London when she marries Jamie Suffield.
Children: John (married to Edith), Michael (married to Joan), Christopher (married to Frances �Fanny�), Priscilla. Edith plays many instruments, and John is a university professor who writes in his spare time.
She has a half-brother, Robert �Rob,� "Robyn," or �Dobbin� Morris, who does odd jobs and is sometimes a sailor. He was on Captain Cook�s first voyage from 1768-1771 on the Endeavor, the one that went to Tahiti to observe the transit of Venus. She hasn�t seen him in awhile and figures he�s on another ship. His wife is Alice �Allie.�
Parents: Mabel and John Tudor. Her father is a retired university professor.
Occupation: She is a bookseller, and with her husband owns Ibid's Bookstore. She supplied books to Sarah Dober in the colonies, but the recent problems have put a stop to that.
Interests: She loves going to the theater, to concerts, and to the British Museum.
Politics: While she sympathizes with the colonists (after all, as British citizens they should be able to determine their government) she wonders why they are so upset about paying their taxes. If they would just stop being so rebellious, she could get on with her trade with the colonies. She does agree that there are problems in the British government.