Iphianassa in Amarna - Athens- Narnia - Tardis Tales - History
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Iphianassa is the daughter of the wanax, Akagamuna, and the wanassa, Klitaimestra. Her sisters are Laodike and Khrisothemis, and her brother is Oreivates. Laodike is married to Pylades, the son of a wanax from a nearby kingdom, and they have a daughter, Alectra. Oreivates is married to Hermione. Iphianassa's paternal grandmother Aerope was Minoan.
Iphianassa has a servant, Arekasadara, "Kasadara." Her ship is the Daminija, and she has a dog named Kowo or "boy."
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Iphianassa in Athens --
Iphianassa in The Time Lords --
Iphianassa in The New Kingdom --
Iphigenia/ Iphianassa in History --
Iphianassa in Narnia
Iphianassa in Athens
Iphianassa is a new librarian from Tegea, a town in southeast Arcadia. Like other towns in the pastoral, mountainous district, Tegea is dominated politically by Sparta, a city she hates. Tegea is an old city mentioned in Homer�s Catalogue of Ships, and it is one of the two main towns in the region, the other being Mantinea. While Iphianassa is proud of her city and sings its praise over its rival Mantinea, (it has a beautiful Temple of Athena Alea, you know), Damaris doesn�t know much about the whole region and thinks her Arcadian accent is cute.
Arcadia is a mountainous, relatively poor region in central Peloponnesus. Still don�t know where we are? Achaia is to the north of us, Messenia and Laconia to the south, Argolis to the east, and Elis to the west.
We mainly raise cattle, horses, sheep, and goats. Shepherds believe they are protected by Pan, who was born in Arcadia. Unlike other places, shepherds have a leading voice. We also have marshes, and basins surrounded by mountains keep water and are a great place to hunt birds. Arcadians are known for their nice manners, their love of music, and are in demand as mercenaries. (In modern times, Arcadia has a few vineyards and oak trees, but no olive tress, and the eastern section is drier).
We Arcadians aren�t immigrants like other Greeks are, no, we came from the land and are descended from the (Prehellenic) Pelasgians. Arcadia was first called Apia, then Pelasgia, (which gave rise to the name Peloponnese), and then finally Arcadia, from Arcada, a son of Callisto, daughter of Lycaon. The Achaians (Mycenaeans) came to Argolis in 1600 BC. Those in the future will say the Dorians in 1100-1000 BC missed us because we were isolated from the rest of the Greeks. We (and the people of Cyprus) speak a dialect, later called Arcadian-Cypriot, which has some similarities to Mycenaean Greek. Dorians settled in Sparta and Argos.
Do you like our nice Arcadian mountains? Most of the gods were born there.
We�ve been here since the first millennium. In the end of the 6th century and the beginning of the 5th, small settlements united to form the towns of Mantineia and Tegea. Mantineia and Tegea have been rivals since who knows when. I�m from Tegea; the rivalry was Mantineia�s fault.
By 550, Tegea, Mantineia, and the other towns in our area were forced to accept an alliance with Sparta. Most stayed faithful to Sparta in the Peloponnesia War (431-404), but in 370 BC, the Arcadian League united for a few decades before disbanding because of rivalry. The League picked Megalopolis as its capital.
In 386/5 Sparta destroyed Mantineia.
�Arcadia.� (2004). Arcadia Chamber. http://www.arcadianet.gr/en/index.php?option=content&task=section&id=8&Itemid=7
(2002). Grecian Net. http://www.grecian.net/GREECE/peloponissos/arcadia/arcadia.htm
Chronology of Greek History: Bronze Age to the Death of Alexander. (2006, February 3, last updated). http://people.ku.edu/~jyounger/grkhstchron.html
Arcadia in Ancient Times. http://en.agrotravel.gr/agro/site/AgroTravel/t_docpage?doc=/Documents/Agrotravel/
Suzanne, Bernard. (1998, January 4; updated November 28, 1998). Cities and Locations of Ancient Greece: Arcadia
Our city is in southern Arcadia and was mentioned by Homer in the Catalog of Ships. Pausanias says that before 600, in the archaic period, nine demes came together to form Tegea, which is on the Tegeatis. (Modern archaeologists aren�t certain where the walls are).
Echemos, king of Tegea, is said to have killed a son of Herakles named Hyllos.
Unfortunately, we have been dominated by Sparta from 550 BC to 371 BC, when Sparta was defeated at the battle of Leuctra. Rivalry grew between Spartans and the Arcadians from 470-465, and Tegea lost. The oligarchic party in Tegea made us closer to Sparta, which brought us into trouble with Mantineia again. We began to make our own coins around 430-420. In the Peloponnesian War, Mantineia fought with the Spartans. We provided the second strongest Peloponnesian group in the Persian War. At the battle of Marathon, Athenians accepted the Arcadian god Pan from the Tegean mountains. We got a city wall around 370 BC through the pro-Sparta party. In 362, we allied against Mantineia against Sparta and fought with the Thebans, but later we went against Mantineia.
Places in the City
Late Mycenaean sherds have been found around the temple of Athena Alea, which was founded by Aleos. The temple is an asylum for fugitives, exiles, and even Spartan kings. We are proud of our archaic temple built by our founder, Aleos, with a cult-statue carved by Endoios, an Attic sculptor. (The statue was taken by Augustus to Rome and put in the Forum Augustum). The archaic temple burned in 395-394 and was replaced by the famous temple of Athena Alea, whose architect was Skopas.
The famous sanctuary of Athena Alea was built in 370-355 by Skopas, the famous sculptor and architect. It is the largest in the Peloponnese, after the one for Zeus in Olympia. In the 2nd century AD, Pausanias said our temple was better than all others in the Peloponnese.
Pausanias says the market was rectangular. Archaeologists have found it west of the theater and say the agora was colonnaded. The acropolis is on the hill of Haghios Sostis, also called Phylaktris or Akra, and was inhabited in Mycenaean times. The acropolis has the Temple of Athena Polias (different from Athena Alea), and on the northeast side, it has a sanctuary of Demeter-Kore.
The sanctuary of Alea Athena at Tegea. (1995-2001). Hellenic Ministry of Culture
Tegea. (2000-2006). Pearson Education, publishing as Infoplease. http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0848048.html
Richard Stillwell, William L. MacDonald, Marian Holland McAllister. (eds.). TEGEA Arkadia, Greece. The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites
Suzanne, Bernard. (1998, January 4; updated November 28, 1998). Cities and Locations of Ancient Greece: Arcadia
Mantineia is in east central Arcadia and has walls, towers, an agora, a theater from the end of the 4th century BC, and other buildings. In prehistoric times, the city was on the acropolis, Gortsouli, and in the Geometric and Archaic periods, the town was in the plain of Mantineia. The Bouleuterion and the agora come from Hellenistic and Roman times.
Mantineia and Argos put together a coalition in the Peloponnesian War in 418, but although they were urged on by the Athenians, they were defeated by the Spartans at Mantineia.
Diotima, mentioned by Plato as a priestess in his Symposium, was from Mantineia.
In 362, Thebes won over Sparta at Mantineia. That was when Epaminondas was killed.
Archaeological Site of Ancient Mantineia. (1995-2001). Hellenic Ministry of Culture
Mantinea. (2000-2006). Pearson Education, publishing as Infoplease. http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0831621.html
Khaire. My name is (Iphianassa), daughter of (Agamemnon, son of Atreos)
and (Klytaimnestra). My sisters and brother are Laodike (sometimes called Elektra), Khrysothemis, and Orestes. I live in .
My name may mean "mighty queen."
Here is my genealogy:
In the Pan Historia Junction Novel:
I was born in Mukanai, on the mainland, in Achaiwia.
Here are some areas that are just being built:
(Ok, pictures by my father in 1979).
My name is Ianassa, daughter of Nereus and Doris. I am a naiad, and I have blue/green skin. Although I am a naiad of Telmar River, I also love the Eastern Ocean, the River Rush that empties into Cair Paravel, and Glasswater Creek. I am friends with many mermen and mermaids of the Eastern Sea, and I play stringed instruments. However, I am also curious about the world beyond.
Queen Helen had four naiads as her trainbearers at her coronation, but I wasn�t one of them. That honor went to the four daughters of the river god, naiads like Aegle, said to be the most beautiful of the naiads, who married one of the king�s sons and had daughters known as the Charites. Another naiad who carried Queen Helen�s train was Melite, who married another son and had Hyllus.*
My best friend is Mykene, daughter of Inachos and Melia, who has recently married Arestor. She is associated with a spring or fountain, and she always wears beautiful garlands. I am also friends with the naiads of the springs at Delphoi � Kastalia, daughter of Akhelous, Kassotis, and Melaena daughter of Kephisos.
Some naiads are known for their beauty, and some have islands and towns named after them. The Anigrides are known as healers. I�m not known for anything special. Feeling a little apart from my own people now that my best friend has married, I have wandered from home and have met Amalda the dwarf. Eventually I will meet Kezia and Sarah, who run away from the pirates.
*Note: the naiads at the coronation don't have canon names, so I used mythology.
Blue/green skin. Curious about the world beyond the river. Name may mean "healing queen."
Image by the Time Lords MoBs.
Image by the Time Lords MoBs.
Iphianassa in The Tardis Tales
I am the daughter of the wanax or king of Mukenai, and I have been made the priestess of Potinija, Mistress of the Animals. I have established a sanctuary for her in Vrauron on the east coast of Attika; at the sanctuary is a mysterious statue of Potinija� Already, Pylades has tried to steal it for his god, Pa-ja-wo-ne (Paian Apollo). The statue came from the Tauri.
Officially, I have come to Keftiu to encourage trade between our peoples, but unofficially, my mother Klytaimnestra has sent me to Keftiu to keep me from political pressures in Mukenai. With me are Ekhinos and Enkhelyawon.
I have become a companion of Nienna.
Names of gods and places used in the story:
Atana Potinija (Mistress Athena)
Diuja the Sky Father (Zeus)
Mistress of the Animals (Artemis)
Poteidan (Poseidon). Called Diwonisojo in Pylos (www.csun.edu/~hcf1004/mycen.html)
Iphianassa in The New Kingdom
I am Iphianassa, daughter of the wanax of Mukenai, and I come to establish trade relations with Egypt. We plan to trade in olive oil and pottery. I also want to show the Egyptians that we are a separate people from the Minoans. Also with me are Damaris, her husband Makhawon, and Mahkawon�s brother, Akhilleus.
Last Minute Fussing
Iphigenia/ Iphianassa in History
Iphigenia was either the eldest daughter of Agamemnon and Klytaimnestra, or she was the daughter of Theseus and the captive Helen. When Helen was freed, she gave her baby to her married sister, Klytaimnestra. However, most say Iphigenia was Agamemnon and Klytaimnestra�s daughter.
Agamemnon fought Tantalus, King of Pisa, killed him in battle, and forced Tantalos� widow, Klytaimnestra, to marry him. He also killed her baby. Klytaimnestra�s brothers, the Dioscuri, marched to Mycene, but Agamemnon had already gone to his benefactor, Klytaimnestra�s father Tyndareus, and gotten forgiveness. Tyndareus even let Agamemnon keep his daughter as his wife.
Agamemnon got Klytaimnestra to send Iphigenia to Aulis on the pretext of a marriage to Akhilles, but really he planned to sacrifice her to Artemis. He had to sacrifice her because contrary winds at Aulis kept the Greeks from sailing. Kalkhas said Artemis demanded Iphigenia to be sacrificed. Artemis was punishing Agamemnon because he had killed a sacred deer in a sacred grove and boasted he was a better hunter than Artemis.
Antonius Liberalis in Metamorphoses said that when all the men looked away during the sacrifice, Artemis substituted a bull calf. Others say Artemis substituted a deer in her stead.
Iphigenia was carried over the Sea of Pontos or Euxinos to Thoas, who was either the son of Borysthenes, or he was the son of Dionysos and Ariadne.
Thoas ruled the Taurians (Crimeans), a nomadic tribe called Taurians because a bull (tauros) replaced Iphigenia, who was also called Tauropolios. Apollodorus said the Taurians were Skythians. The wooden image of Artemis was taken to Athens and called the Tauropolos. (However, some say Thoas is the king of Lemnos, an island).
Klytaimnestra naturally resented her husband for all he had done to her. At first, she wanted to have a tryst with a guy named Nauplius, but Agamemnon knew to be on guard from him and had someone watch Klytaimnestra. Aegisthus didn�t go to the Trojan War, but stayed home and plotted against Agamemnon. Aegisthus went to King Cylarabes, son of King Sthenelus the Argive. When he heard Klytaimnestra wanted a liaison, he decided to woo her to get at Agamemnon. He marooned the old minstrel guarding Klytaimnestra, who soon died.
Meanwhile, Orestes was raised by his maternal grandparents Tyndareous and Leda. As a boy, he accompanied Klytaimnestra and Iphigenia to Aulis, where Agamemnon had her sacrificed. (However, Artemis wrapped her in a cloud and took her away). Orestes was ten when Klytaimnestra and Aegisthus killed Agamemnon. Electra smuggled him to safety, and he eventually went to Strophius, King of Crisa, where Orestes� playmate was Pylades.
Aegisthus reigned seven years, but Klytaimnestra was the real ruler. Aegisthus never felt safe. Electra publically called them murderous adulterors, so Aegisthus wanted to kill her. But Klytaimnestra wouldn�t let him. He was afraid she�d have a son that would kill him, so he married her off to a peasant.
Orestes came back and killed them both. The Erinnyes pursued Orestes because he killed his mother, so he went to Delphi and asked what to do. The Oracle told him to get an old wooden image of Artemis from her temple in Tauric Chersonese and bring it to Athens or Attica. The image had fallen from the sky. He got a 50-oared ship and sailed up the Bosphorus and north to the Black Sea to get it.
There they found Iphigenia, who was the only one allowed to handle the image. The Taurians beheaded their prisoners and impaled their heads on stakes above the chimney. They sacrificed strangers and put their heads on a cross. However, Iphigenia hated human sacrifice. Orestes and his companion Pylades are captured and taken to be sacrificed. Iphigenia told them she would help them escape if she would carry a message for her to brother Orestes, who she thought was in Argos. When Orestes found out the message was for him, they realized who each other was. She began to give the image to Orestes, but Thoas came in, so Iphigenia covered by saying the image had been polluted by these two because one killed his mother, and the other helped. (Orestes must have told her this, because she wouldn�t have been there for it. One might imagine the conversation: Iphigenia: �How�s Mother?� Orestes: �Mother? Oh, I killed her. She killed Father.�) So anyway, Iphigenia told Thoas that she needed to bring the prisoners and the image to the sea to cleanse them, and that everyone should stay away to avoid pollution. She would also offer a torchlit sacrifice of lambs. At the sea, they boarded the 50-oared ship and fought off the temple servants that went with Iphigenia.
They came to the Island of Sminthos (?) where Chryses the priest of Apollo lived with his daughter Chryseis (Astynome). Chryseis says they should give the fugitives to Thoas, who has pursued them, but Chryses the Elder told Chryses the Younger that he wasn�t Apollo�s son as the Elder said, but that he was Agamemnon�s son. Agamemnon had taken Chryseis as war booty. So Chryses the Younger helped Orestes kill Thoas.
Orestes took the image to Mycene. There, Aegisthus� son Aletes usurped the throne, believing Orestes dead. Electra doubted this and went to Delphi. There, Iphigenia happened to be walking by, and someone pointed her out as Orestes� killer. Electra was going to blind her, not recognizing her, but Orestes came up and explained it all. They all went to Mycene, where Orestes kills Aletes. Electra marries Pylades and Orestes marries his cousin Hermione.
The image was set up at Halae (or Brauron), and Iphigenia became a priestess of Artemis there, where she bore the title Tauropoulos. Brauron is some distance from Marathon. Pausanias said he saw an old wooden image of Artemis at Brauron, but he didn�t know if it was the one Iphigenia brought. Iphigenia later went to Argos.
So that's the story.
However, Iphigenia had other names. In Homer, one of the three daughters of Agamemnon and Klytaimnestra was Iphianassa (the others were Chrysothemis and Laodice). Homer does not directly mention the sacrifice in either the Iliad or the Odyssey. The name �Iphianassa� may be an older variant of �Iphigenia.� However, in the lost epic Cypria, dated one or two centuries after Homer, Iphianassa was another daughter and was different than Iphigenia.
The Cypria contains the earliest version of the sacrifice. Agamemnon has four daughters, and it is Iphigenia who is sacrificed at Aulis. The next source containing the sacrifice is Aeschylus� The Libation Bearers, about 460 BC, where Klytaimnestra mentions Iphigenia�s murder as part of her justification for killing Agamemnon. Euripides makes Iphigenia the center of his story in Iphigenia at Aulis and Iphigenia at Tauris.
Iphigenia may be a form of Artemis. She is so closely identified with Artemis that she may have started as a virgin hunting goddess whose cult was taken over by devotees of Artemis. Her name is frequently more like an epithet for Artemis.
Adkins, Lesley, and Roy A. Adkins. (1997). Handbook to Life in Ancient Greece. New York: Oxford University Press.
Atsma, Aaron. (2000-2006). �Artemis Favour.� Theoi Project. http://www.theoi.com/Olympios/ArtemisFavour.html
Atsma, Aaron. (2000-2006). �Dionysos Family.� Theoi Project. http://www.theoi.com/Olympios/DionysosFamily.html
Encyclopedia Mythica. "Iphigenia." (1997, May 2; December 27, 1998. c. 2006). http://www.pantheon.org/articles/i/iphigenia.html
Graves, Robert. (1955, 1958, 1981). Greek Myths: Illustrated. London: Penguin Books.
Iphianassa. (2006, March 15).Wikipeida. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iphianassa
Iphigeneia. (2006, May 23). Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iphigenia
Joe, Jimmy. (2003, June 22; 2006, July 4). "Heroines." Timeless Myths (Classical Mythology). http://www.timelessmyths.com/classical/heroines.html
Seltzer, Richard. Making sense of the myths behind Greek tragedy, in particular the mythos of Pelops/Atreus/Agamemnon. http://www.samizdat.com/myth.html (This article is based on a paper written in graduate school at Yale, for Comparative Literature 110 (a course in Theory of Comparative Literature taught by Rene Wellek and Lowry Nelson).
Smith, William (Ed.). (1870). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. This edition was scanned by the University of Michigan's project The Making of America. The text on this site underwent a separate OCR process. http://www.ancientlibrary.com/smith-bio/0399.html
Tripp, Edward. (1970). Crowell�s Handbook of Classical Mythology. New York: Thomas Y Crowell Co.
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